Basic stretches for neck pain are convenient enough to be done on a regular basis throughout the day, such as at home, at work, or even in the car. Some examples include:
Strength training exercise offers many benefits for individuals of all ages and is perhaps critically important for the elderly (13). The benefits associated with strength training are: 1) increase in lean body mass; 2) increase in metabolic rate; 3) increase in bone density; 4) decrease risk of injury; and 5) building back lost muscle tissue that commonly occurs with aging (12, 17). Loss of skeletal muscle results in less strength to perform basic necessary activities such as standing from a seated position, grooming oneself, or preparing a meal. Loss of skeletal muscle is also the largest contributor to a reduction of resting metabolic rate possibly leading to overweightness or obesity (13).
Strength training is essential for athletes in sports that require speed, power, and strength (5). Additionally, strength training may benefit athletes involved in distance running, cycling, or weight class events such as wrestling and boxing for the preservation of lean body mass (5). According to Wernbom et al. the major challenge of strength training research is to isolate variables responsible for increasing lean body mass and strength (20). Wernbom et al. conclude that limited research is available to determine optimal training parameters for increasing lean body mass and strength (20).
There is much debate on the strength training variables most responsible for improvements in lean mass and strength. Frequency of strength training is possibly the most debated topic amongst coaches and fitness professionals (2). Several studies have demonstrated that a lower frequency of training may be as effective as higher frequency training (3, 4, 6, 7, 8). While other research indicates that two or three training sessions per muscle per week may produce up to twice the increase in cross sectional area of the quadriceps and elbow flexors, compared to one training session per week per muscle group (19, 21). However, weekly training volume (sets multiplied by number of repetitions completed) was not equal between groups in these investigations (19, 21). Tesch et al. (18) observed elite strength athletes and bodybuilders training each muscle group just once per week, incorporating many sets per muscle group and concluded that it is unknown if the training programs elite athletes and bodybuilders employ are superior for increasing lean body mass and strength compared to more frequent muscle group training.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if high frequency agonistic strength training produces greater increases in lean mass and strength compared to lower frequency agonistic strength training, in strength trained participants with both groups completing an equal number of sets. It was hypothesized that high frequency agonistic strength training would result in greater increases in lean mass and strength compared to lower frequency agonistic strength training program.
The study was approved by the University’s Institutional Review Board and human subject committee. All participants read and signed a university approved informed consent after filling out a pre participation-screening questionnaire. The participants were healthy, males, and females, over the age of 18. Participants had experience in strength training, free of cardiovascular disease or major orthopedic condition that would limit their participation in a strength training program...